# A Modern Handbook Of Physics

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- Publication date
- 1982

- Topics
- physics, handbook, motion, mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, relativity, solid state physics, nuclear physics

- Collection
- opensource

- Language
- English

## About the book (From the Preface)

The basic sciences and physics, in particular, are of prime importance today in the training of engineers for the various branches of the national economy. This has led to fundamental changes in recent years in the teaching of physics in engineering institutes, and to the students of other educational institutions in which they do not major in physics. The scope and scientific level of physics courses have been substantially supplemented and cover the main trends in the development of modern physics. Consequently, the physics textbooks for engineering students have inevitably become three-volume editions of almost fifteen hundred pages. The need has arisen, in this connection, for a concise handbook on this subject.

The aim of the authors was to fulfill this need. In scope and depth this handbook includes all of the definitions, formulas and information covered in the most comprehensive and up-to-date physics courses of engineering institutes

and the physics departments of universities and colleges. Physical laws are concisely formulated, all the necessary explanations are given and, in many cases, derivations as well. Though it plays a vital role in the teaching of physics, experimental material has been omitted. This is due only to a lack of space. All the units and symbols comply with the requirements of the SI Units of physical quantities and systems of units are listed and dealt with in a short appendix.This handbook is designed primarily for engineering students, as well as college and university students studying, but not majoring in physics. It can be used to advantage by engineers and graduate students, as well as by instructors and lecturers of intermediate schools and colleges.

Mathematical knowledge required in using the handbook is within the scope of the ordinary mathematics courses of engineering institutes. The detailed index and the numerous cross references, indicating the chapter, section and subsection, are of aid in finding any required information.

The book was translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein and was published by Mir in 1982. This is called the "Modern" handbook, as there exists another "Handbook of Physics" by the same authors which is about 1000 pages long.

PDF | OCR | Bookmarked | 300 dpi (upscaled to 600) | Paginated

Contents

Front Cover 1

Title Page 7

Contents 9

Preface 21

**PART ONE MECHANICS 23**

CHAPTER 1 KINEMATICS 23

1.1 Mechanical Motion. The Subject Matter of Mechanics 23

1.2 Frames of Reference. Path, Path Length and Displacement Vector of a Particle 24

1.3 Velocity 28

1.4 Acceleration 31

1.5 Translational and Rotary Motion of a Rigid Body 33

CHAPTER 2 NEWTON'S LAWS 38

2.1 Newton's First Law. Inertial Frames of Reference 38

2.2 Force 39

2.3 Mass. Momentum 42

2.4 Newton's Second Law 44

2.5 Newton's Third Law. Motion of the Centre of Mass 46

2.6 Motion of a Body of Variable Mass 48

2.7 Law of Conservation of Momentum 50

2.8 Galilean Transformations. Mechanical Principle of Relativity 52

CHAPTER 3 WORK AND MECHANICAL ENERGY 55

3.1 Energy, Work and Power 55

3.2 Kinetic Energy 60

3.3 Potential Energy 63

3.4 Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy 67

3.5 Perfectly Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 70

CHAPTER 4 DYNAMICS OF ROTARY MOTION 74

4.1 Moment of Force and Angular Momentum 74

4.2 Moment of Inertia 78

4.3 The Fundamental Law in the Dynamics of Rotary Motion 81

4.4 Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum 85

CHAPTER 5 FUNDAMENTALS OF THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY 88

5.1 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity 88

5.2 Simultaneity of Events. Synchronization of Clocks 91

5.3 Lorentz's Transformations 93

5.4 Relativity of Lengths and Time Intervals. Time Interval Between Two Events 94 453

5.5 Transformation of Velocities and Accelerations in Relativistic Kinematics 100

5.6 Basic Law of Relativistic Dynamics 103

5.7 Mass-Energy Relation 105

CHAPTER 6 GRAVITATION 108

6.1 Law of Universal Gravitation 108

6.2 Gravitational Field 111

6.3 Kepler's Laws. Space Velocities 116

CHAPTER 7 MOTION IN NONINERTIAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE 119

7.1 Kinematics of Relative Motion 119

7.2 Inertial Forces 121

7.3 Relative Motion in a Frame of Reference Fixed to the Earth. Gravity Force and Weight of a Body 123

7.4 Principle of Equivalence 127

**PART TWO FUNDAMENTALS OF MOLECULAR PHYSICS AND THERMODYNAMICS 130**

CHAPTER 8 IDEAL GASES 130

8.1 Subject Matter of Molecular Physics.Thernal Motion 130

8.2 Statistical and Thermodynamic Methods of Investigation 131

8.3 Thermodynamic Variables. Equations of State. Thermodynamic Processes 133

8.4 Equation of State of an Ideal Gas 136

CHAPTER 9 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 138

9.1 Total and Internal Energy of a System 138

9.2 Heat and Work 141

9.3 First Law of Thermodynamics 144

9.4 Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Processes and Work 145

9.5 Heat Capacity of Matter. Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics to Isoprocesses in an Ideal Gas 147

CHAPTER 10 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 155

10.1 Certain Information on Classical Statistical Physics 155

10.2 Basic Equation of the Kinetic Theory of Gases 156

10.3 Maxwell's Molecular Velocity and Energy Distribution Law (Maxwell's Distribution Law) 158

10.4 Particle Distribution in a Potential Force Field (Boltzmann Distribution) 163

10.5 Mean Free Path of Molecules 165

10.6 Principle of the Equipartition of Energy. Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas 166

10.7 Heat Capacity of Monatomic, Diatomic and Polyatomic Gases 169

10.8 Transport Phenomena in Gases 174

10.9 Properties of Rarified Gases 179

CHAPTER 11 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 181

11.1 Cycles. The Carnot Cycle 181

11.2 Reversible and Irreversible Processes 185

11.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics 186

11.4 Entropy and Free Energy 189

11.5 Statistical Interpretation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics 192

11.6 Fluctuations 193

11.7 Brownian Movement 196

11.8 Third Law of Thermodynamics 197

CHAPTER 12 REAL GASES AND VAPOURS 198

12.1 Forces of Intermolecular Interaction 198

12.2 Van der Waals Equation of State 204

12.3 Isothermals of Real Gases. Phase Transitions 206

12.4 Superfluidity of Helium 209

CHAPTER 13 LIQUIDS 211

13.1 Certain Properties of Liquids 211

13.2 Frenkel's Hole Theory of the Liquid State 212

13.3 Diffusion and Viscosity Phenomena in Liquids 214

13.4 Surface Tension of Liquids 215

13.5 Wetting and Capillary Phenomena 217

13.6 Vaporization and Boiling of Liquids 221

**PART THREE ELECTRODYNAMICS 224**

CHAPTER 14 ELECTRIC CHARGES. COULOMB'S LAW 224

14.1 Introduction 224

14.2 Coulomb's Law 225

CHAPTER 15 ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH AND DISPLACEMENT 228

15.1 Electric Field. Field Strength 228

15.2 Principle of Superposition of Electric Fields 230

15.3 Electric Displacement. Ostrogradsky-Gauss Electric Flux Theorem 234

CHAPTER 16 ELECTRIC FIELD POTENTIAL 238

16.1 Work Done in Moving an Electric Charge in an Electrostatic Field 238

16.2 Potential of an Electrostatic Field 240

16.3 Relation Between the Potential and Strength of an Electrostatic field 244

16.4 Conductors in an Electrostatic Field 246

CHAPTER 17 CAPACITANCE 248

17.1 Capacitance of an Isolated Conductor 248

17.2 Mutual Capacitance. Capacitors 249

CHAPTER 18 DIELECTRICS IN AN ELECTRIC FIELD 253

18.1 Dipole Moments of Molecules of a Dielectric 253

18.2 Polarization of Dielectrics 255

18.3 Relation Between Displacement, Field Strength and Polarization Vectors 259

18.4 Ferroelectric Materials 261

CHAPTER 19 ENERGY OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD 264

19.1 Energy of a Charged Conductor and an Electric Field 264

19.2 Energy of a Polarized Dielectric 267

CHAPTER 20 DIRECT ELECTRIC CURRENT 268

20.1 Concept of an Electric Current 268

20.2 Current and Current Density 269

20.3 Fundamentals of the Classical Electron Theory of Electrical Conduction in Metals 271

CHAPTER 21 DIRECT CURRENT LAWS 274

21.1 Extraneous Forces 274

21.2 Ohm's Law and the Joule-Lenz Law 275

21.3 KirchhoH's Laws 279

CHAPTER 22 ELECTRIC CURRENT IN LIQUIDS ND GASES 282

22.1 Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis. Electrolytic Dissociation 282

22.2 Atomicity of Electric Charges 284

22.3 Electrolytic Conduction of Liquids 284

22.4 Electrical Conduction in Gases 286

22.5 Various Types of Gas Discharges 287

22.6 Certain Information on Plasma 290

CHAPTER 23 MAGNETIC FIELD OF DIRECT CURRENT 294

23.1 Magnetic Field. Ampere's Law 294

23.2 The Biot-Savarf-Laplace Law 296

23.3 Simplest Cases of Magnetic Fields Set Up by Direct Currents 300

23.4 Interaction of Conductors. Effect of a Magnetic Field on Current-Carrying Conductors 306

23.5 Total Current Law. Magnetic Circuits 308

23.6 Work Done in Moving a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field 312

CHAPTER 24 MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS 314

24.1 Lorentz Force 314

24.2 Hall Effect 318

24.3 Charge-fo-Mass Ratio of Particles. Mass Spectroscopy 321

24.4 Charged Particle Accelerators 322

CHAPTER 25 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 327

25.1 Basic Law of Electromagnetic Induction 327

25.2 Phenomenon of Self-Induction 331

25.3 Mutual Induction 334

25.4 Energy of a Magnetic Field Set up by an Electric Current 336

CHAPTER 26 MAGNETIC MATERIALS IN A MAGNETIC FIELD 339

26.1 Magnetic Moments of Electrons and Atoms 339

26.2 An Atom in a Magnetic Field 341

26.3 Diamagnetic and Paramagnetic Materials in a Uniform Magnetic Field 344

26.4 Magnetic Field in Magnetic Materials 348

26.5 Ferromagnetic Materials 350

CHAPTER 27 FUNDAMENTALS OF MAXWELL S THEORY 354

27.1 General Features o! Maxwell's Theory 354

27,2 Maxwell's First Equation 355

27.3 Displacement Current. Maxwell's Second Equation 357

27.4 Complete Set of Maxwell's Equations for an Electromagnetic Field 361

**PART FOUR OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES 366 **

CHAPTER 28 FREE HARMONIC OSCILLATIONS 366

28.1 Harmonic Oscillations 366

28.2 Mechanical Harmonic Vibrations 370

23.3 Free Harmonic Oscillations in an Oscillatory Electric Circuit 376

28.4 Adding Harmonic Oscillations 378

CHAPTER 29 DAMPED AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS 388

29.1 Damped Oscillations 388

29.2 Forced Mechanical Vibration 392

29.3 Forced Electrical Oscillation 397

CHAPTER 30 ELASTIC WAVES 402

30.1 Longitudinal and Transverse Waves in an Elastic Medium 402

30.2 Travelling Wave Equation 405

30.3 Phase Velocity and Energy of Elastic Waves 410

30.4 Principle of Superposition of Waves. Group Velocity

30.5 Interference of Waves. Standing Waves 418

30.6 Doppler Effect in Acoustics 424

CHAPTER 31 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 426

31.1 Properties of Electromagnetic Waves 426

31.2 Energy of Electromagnetic Waves 431

31.3 Electromagnetic Radiation 434

31.4 Electromagnetic Spectrum 437

31.5 Reflection and Refraction of Electromagnetic Waves at the Interface Between Two Dielectric Media 439

31.6 Doppler Effect 444

**PART FIVE OPTICS 448 **

CHAPTER 32 INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT 448

32.1 Monochromaticity and Time Coherence of Light 448

32.2 Interference of Light. Spatial Coherence of Light 450

32.3 Interference of Light in Thin Films 457

32.4 Multiwave Interference 461

CHAPTER 33 DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT 465

33.1 Huygens-Fresnel Principle 465

33.2 Fresnel Diffraction 469

33.3 Fraunhofer Diffraction 471

33.4 Diffraction by a Space Lattice 478

33.5 Resolving Power of Optical Instruments 480

33.6 Holography 482

CHAPTER 34 ABSORPTION, SCATTERING AND DISPERSION OF LIGHT. VAVILOV-CHERENKOV RADIATION 485

34.1 Interaction of Light With Matter 485

34.2 Absorption of Light 486

34.3 Scattering of Light 489

24.4 Normal and Anomalous Light Dispersion 491

34.5 Classical Electron Theory of Light Dispersion 493

34.6 Vavilov-Cherenkov Radiation 496

CHAPTER 35 POLARIZATION OF LIGHT 499

35.1 Polarization of Light in Reflection and Refraction at the Interface Between Two Dielectric Media 499

35.2 Birefringence (Double Refraction) 502

35.3 Interference of Polarized Light 508

35.4 Artificial Optical Anisotropy 512

35.5 Rotation of the Plane of Polarization 514

CHAPTER 36 THERMAL RADIATION 515

36.1 Thermal Radiation. Kirchhoff's Law 515

36.2 Sfefan-Boltzmann and Wien Laws 520

36.3 Planck's Formula 522

36.4 Optical Pyrometry 526

CHAPTER 37 FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM OPTICS 528

37.1 External Photoelectric Effect (Photoemissive Effect) 528

37.2 Mass and Momentum of the Photon. Light Pressure 532

37.3 Compton Effect 534

37.4 Wave-Particle Duality of the Properties of Light 537

**PART SIX ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS 539 **

CHAPTER 38 ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS 539

38.1 Wave-Particle Dualism of the Properties of Particles of Matter 539

33.2 Schrodinger Wave Equation 542

38.3 Motion of a Free Particle 544

38.4 A Particle in a One-Dimensional Infinitely Deep Potential Well 545

38.5 Linear Harmonic Oscillator 547

38.6 Heisenberg Indeterminacy Principle 552

38.7 Tunnel Effect 555

CHAPTER 39 STRUCTURE OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES AND THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES 558

39.1 The Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen-Like Ions 558

39.2 Space Quantization 563

39.3 Pauli Exclusion Principle. Mendeleev's Periodic Table 565

39.4 Chemical Bonds and Molecular Structure 567

39.5 Optical Properties of Molecules. Molecular Spectra 570

39.6 Raman Scattering of Light 572

39.7 Luminescence. X rays 574

39.8 Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers 577

**PART SEVEN BASIC SOLID-STATE PHYSICS 583 **

CHAPTER 40 STRUCTURE AND CERTAIN PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS 583

40.1 Structure of Solids 583

40.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids 584

40.3 Brief Information on the Elastic Properties of Solids 586

40.4 Basic Concepts of Phase Transitions in Solids 589

CHAPTER 41 AN OUTLINE OF THE QUANTUM PHYSICS OF SOLIDS 592

41.1 Basic Concepts of Quantum Statistics 592

41.2 Bose-Einsfein and Fermi-Dirac Distribution Functions 593

41.3 Degeneracy of Systems of Particles Described by Quantum Statistics 596

41.4 Degenerate Electron Fermi Gas in Metals 598

41.5 Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction in Metals 602

41.6 Superconductivity 605

41.7 Heat Capacity of Solids 609

41.8 Band Theory of Solids 614

41.9 Metals and Dielectrics in the Band Theory 618

41.10 Electrical Conduction of Semiconductors 619

41.11 Concept of Contact Electrical Phenomenon Metals and Semiconductors 624

PART EIGHT NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 630

CHAPTER 42 STRUCTURE AND BASIC PROPERTIES OF ATOMIC NUCLEI 630

42.1 Main Properties and Structure of the Nucleus 630

42.2 Binding Energy of Nuclei. Mass Defect 632

42.3 Nuclear Forces 635

42.4 Radioactivity 637

42.5 Alpha Decay 641

42.6 Beta Decay 643

42.7 Gamma Rays 646

42.8 Mossbauer Effect 649

42.9 Nuclear Reactions 652

CHAPTER 43 ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 662

43.1 Preliminary Information on Elementary Particles 662

43.2 Classification of Elementary Particles and Their Interaction 666

43.3 Certain Information on Various Elementary Particles 669

43.4 Certain Conservation Laws in Elementary-Particle Physics 672

43.5 Antiparticles 675

43.6 Structure of the Nucleon 677

**PART NINE APPENDICES 680**

I. SYSTEMS OF UNITS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES 680

II. FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS 694

INDEX 699

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